"Playing With Fire" By Greg Breining about the studies by University of Minnesota Dr. Lee Frelich on forest fires and other ecological disturbances in the Bourndary Waters, excerpt:
... "So what will the Boundary Waters look like in a 100 years? "With unmitigated global warming—and that's probably what we're going to have—say it warms up in the summer by 4 or 5 degrees Celsius, I'd expect it to be a lot more shrubby," Frelich says. Signature trees such as jack pine, red pine, spruce, balsam fir, and even paper birch might all but disappear. White pine and northern white cedar might endure, but only if deer don't eat their seedlings to nubs. Some areas would evolve to bur oak savanna. In others, red maple and oak would form a hardwood forest.
A warmer climate will likely aid the proliferation of invasive species, since most are advancing from warmer regions. Among these aliens are emerald ash borer, Asian longhorn beetle, and sudden oak death. The mountain pine beetle could wipe out white, red, and jack pine. "There's no reason it couldn't run through the entire jack pine belt to the Atlantic Ocean. It couldn't do that before because it was too cold in the winter," Frelich says. "It's amazing the predicament we've gotten ourselves in, with the tree diseases we've brought in from other continents." ...